Insight gained from reading a paper titled "ACLs don't" that is really obvious in retrospect:
the confused deputy problem happens exactly because authority-based systems care about the authority of whoever directly performs an operation, and that intuition/model breaks when there's a *delegation*, i.e. with deputies.
It would be possible to deal with simple delegation, but it won't work when there are multiple levels of it or when there are complex delegation graphs.
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